There is always a touch of innovation in the textile industry. From ancient times to the present, a team of experts and textile engineers have been working with new innovations in mind in this industry. And new fibers are also being made to maintain the continuity of this. Many new types of fiber are now used in textile productions that are environmentally friendly and economical. Besides, it also plays an important role in the growth of garments in the market, expansion of exports and increase in employment.
What is Textile Fiber?
Textile fiber is a material that is mainly made from natural or synthetic sources. This material is first converted into textile yarn and also is converted into fabric by various processes such as oven, non-oven, and special process. It can be in the form of strand-like flexible hair or as the smallest visible unit of textile production.
As this fiber comes from nature, it is also being made artificially as a result of the development of technology. Every day new fiber is made and it comes from different plants, minerals, animals.
List of New Fibers in Textile Industry:
- Lotus Fiber
- Banana Fiber
- Hemp Fiber
- Bamboo Fiber
- Pineapple Fiber or Pina Fiber
- Nano Fiber
- Micro Fiber
- Milk Fiber
- Coffee Ground Fiber
- Tencel fiber
- Seacell fiber
- Hollow Fiber
- Elastomeric Fiber
- High Wet Modulus Fiber
- Stinging nettle fiber
- DuPont Apexa fiber
- DuPont Sorona fiber
- Jute cell fiber
- Avra fiber
- EcoSure PET fiber
- Coolmax EcoMade fiber
Among them the most important new fibers in textile industry are described below:
Lotus fiber is a type of natural fiber that is collected from the stem of the lotus. According to botany, Lotus fiber is a secondary wall located between the elements of xylem trachea. Its main constituent is cellulose. Fabrics made from lotus fiber carry a lot of silk qualities. The fiber that is separated from the lotus obtained in the lakes of Myanmar and Cambodia is knitted by hand without any machine. The silk-like fabric is then available as a product within 24 hours by hand weaving process.
Some of its unique features exist. For example, it weighs very little, is as flexible as silk, is very delicate, elastic, very comfortable, has high germicidal resistance, is free of folds, can easily absorb moisture, can be dry and can last a long time. Lotus fabric is also called the best eco-friendly fabric because it is made from lotus stems. No chemical or toxic ingredients are used in the manufacturing process. According to the traditional Burmese and Thai methods, the spinning and weaving process is performed by hand work.
At present high quality fiber is available from banana tree which is used to make high quality yarn. It has strong fibers and its weight is light. It has also strong moisture absorption properties. The fiber is dried in the sun to make a cotton roll. Then the yarn is made with a spinning machine. That thread is used to make cloth with the help of loom. If the quality of the fabric is good, it can be expected to be exported to several other countries including Canada. The yarn made from the bark of the banana tree is durable and of good quality. It is more durable after blending with jute or cotton. It can be used to make high quality yarn for making paper, handicrafts, handbags, ropes, fancy items and tents.
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Hemp fiber derived from hemp trees can play a very important role in the textile industry. Hemp fiber tends to be very strong and is a high quality textile fiber. Hemp is superior to other natural fibers in both cultivation and application. It cultivation requires less material and less water than cotton. This fiber used in industry is resistant to insects and diseases which make it grow very fast. Low lignin levels can be bleached without chlorine, making it environmentally friendly. Thick hemp fiber and yarn are used to weave cordage, rope, sacking and heavy-duty tarpaulins. In Italy, fine hemp fibers are used for interior design and clothing. It is also used to make tapestries, hats, shawls and towels.
Due to advanced technology, it has been possible to convert bamboo fiber into textile fiber through chemical or mechanical processes. Typically, blending is done with 30% cotton. It can also be blended with other fibers such as hemp and spandex. Bamboo yarn has 40% more absorption capacity than cotton which helps to remove sweat from the skin very quickly and keep it dry and fresh. Especially noticeable soft fabrics can be made with the help of this yarn.
Pineapple fiber or Pina fiber:
Yarn can be extracted from pineapple leaves. The fiber obtained from pineapple is called ‘pina fiber’. Artificial fibers are constantly being discovered around the world, which are harmful and dangerous to both the body and the environment. From that point of view, ‘Pineapple Fiber or Pina Fiber’ is very environmentally friendly and does not contain any harmful chemicals. Not only this, with the help of Sustainable Fiber Pina fiber is also very popular. Many people are using products made of Pina Fiber as it is cheap and durable.
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Nanofiber is currently playing a special role in medical and home textiles. The fineness of these fiber yarns works especially well in absorbing moisture. Nanofiber refers to carbon fibers of 100 diameters or less in diameter. It is a synthetic fiber. This synthetic fiber is prepared by polymerization with the help of electro spinning.
Microfiber is a man-made synthetic material that weighs less than 1 denier. Simply put, a 900 meter long micro yarn weighs just 1 gram and the diameter of the microfiber is one fifth of the diameter of human hair. Currently four types of microfiber are being produced commercially. The structural components of microfiber are basically two, polyester and polyamide. Polyester forms the body structure of microfiber and polyamide lends itself to absorption and density. Over the years, microfibers have been used in clothing, matte nuts, upholstery, towels, and cleaning accessories. These fibers are woven together to form a spun yarn and are then able to form a fabric that is capable of picking up the smallest dust and dirt. The thicker the fabric, the more yarn will be used during the weaving process, the better it will clean. The increased absorption, softness, stiffness, and ability of microfibers to retain more dust than most regular cotton fabrics make them unique and special.
Milk yarn is made from milk protein. In order to make yarn, the milk is first completely dehydrated. Then skimmed are extracted from it. Spinning protein fluid (fiber) is made from the appendix through bio-engineering. High quality textile fibers are obtained from this fluid through wet spinning. The use of this fiber is more in children’s clothing and high quality underwear. Moreover, different types of fiber can be made by mixing milk fiber with any other fiber such as cotton, wool, silk.
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Coffee ground fiber:
The most important feature of coffee ground fiber is its ability to dry quickly. This means that whenever the body starts sweating, this coffee fiber absorbs the sweat and dries it quickly. Coffee fiber is used to make T-shirts, shirts, fashionable hoodies, sportswear. This fiber is used in the preparation of sports clothes due to its 200% fast drying ability. Another advantage is that the fabric can be easily washed without the use of detergents.
Since new fibers are being invented all the time, its quality needs to be verified, it needs to be further improved. In addition, before making the fiber must work with the environment in mind. Fibers that are not environmentally friendly and that can cause damage should be eliminated. Only then will the textile industry reach the high roots of improvement day by day.
- New Fibers – 2nd Edition By Tatsuya Hongu and Glyn O. Phillips
Author of This Article:
Dept. of Clothing and Textile
Govt. College of Applied Human Science, Dhaka
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